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Eve DeQuincey

Dołączył: 18 Gru 2019
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(2002) and Muckenhirn and Eisenberg puma latest shoes (1973) inferred that the high level of overlap found for female jaguars, pumas, and leopards was influenced by seasonally clumped distributions of prey species around permanent water holes. Seidensticker et al. (1973) suggested that ranges of female pumas overlapped in response to the migratory movement of deer between seasons. Among large cats in general, higher densities of females with small and stable ranges are associated with exclusive home ranges of males for dominant individuals, presumably maximizing the number of monitored females.

Conversely, lower densities of females with larger and less-stable ranges are associated with overlapping ranges of dominant males, in this case roaming presumably becomes a more effective mate-acquisition strategy ( Sandell 1989 ; Sunquist and Sunquist 2002 ).These generic patterns are not observed in all field studies. Ranges of males overlap for jaguars, pumas, and leopards in areas where densities of females are high and ranges are overlapping ( puma leather sneakers Muckenhirn and Eisenberg 1973 ; Núñez et al. 2002 ). In this case, it seems likely that males as well as females are responding to clumped distributions of prey, and dominance hierarchies may be expressed in other ways than exclusive territories.

In this study, we tackled the fundamental issue of small sample puma lifestyle shoes sizes in studies of large cats by deploying an extensive network of camera traps to capture timed locations of jaguars and pumas. The unique spot pattern of jaguars allows individual recognition from camera-trap photographs ( Silver et al. 2004 ). Although recognition of individual pumas may be possible under certain circumstances ( Kelly et al. 2008 ), in the present study individual pumas could not be identified with certainty over the long term because of their plain brown coat pattern ( Harmsen 2006 ).

Jaguars were individually identified from photographic captures. Cameras had an enforced 3-min delay between exposures to prevent wasting film on puma mexico herd-forming species such as peccaries. Each photograph was stamped with the time and date, allowing calculation of time intervals between consecutive captures at the same camera location. To ensure spatiotemporal independence, simultaneously running camera stations were separated by >2 km. Any jaguar or puma captured at 2 stations on a single day was recorded for analysis at only 1 of the stations, chosen at random. Minitab version 14 (Minitab Ltd., Coventry, United Kingdom) was used for all statistical analyses.

Interspecific interactions between jaguars and pumas.  Photographic records were analyzed for differences in daily activity schedules between the jaguars and pumas. The time of capture was used to create a 24-h activity pattern for both species. The number of photographs was summed within each hour for 0000 0059 h, 0100 0159 h, & , etc. and converted to percentage of captures within an hour to facilitate comparisons between the 2 species. A Pearson's correlation on the arcsine-root-transformed percentages of jaguar and puma captures in each hour tested the hypothesis that jaguars and pumas have similar activity patterns.

Data were used only from camera locations with e"3 captures per single species ( n = 22 camera stations). The runs test was performed on the pooled data set ( n = 853 cat puma official site captures). This analysis used only cameras separated by >2 km.Capture frequency of jaguars and pumas was positively correlated at each camera location ( r = 0.65 between log 10 captures, P n = 93) indicating that both species used the same areas ( Fig. 4a ). However, jaguars and pumas did not appear to use the same areas at the same time: capture rates of jaguars and pumas were never simultaneously high at the same location within the same month ( Fig. 4b ; Pearson correlation between logio nonzero captures, [img] lifestyle shoes-414bkp.jpg[/img] r = 0.09, P = 0.17, n = 258).
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Sro Gru 18, 2019 09:40
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